By John R. Bentley
The oldest written level of the japanese language kinds the topic of John Bentley's vital quantity. The underlying texts (also offered right here) are these of the non secular liturgies (norito) and imperial edicts (A.D. 685). half one offers with the liturgies, the writing approach, texts, and phonology and the courting challenge. the most chapters of the booklet are an outline of nominals, verbs, verbal suffixes, auxiliary verbs, debris, and conjunctions. A bankruptcy at the lexicon, detailing many hapax legomena and engaging phrases, makes this right into a significant reference paintings on early eastern.
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Additional resources for A Descriptive Grammar of Early Old Japanese Prose (Brill's Japanese Studies Library)
These two important facts would allow the textual scholar to infer that the archetype originally had this passage as abcdef. This is also borne out by the quote in the commentary, which shows that the spelling change c > s occurred earlier than the shift in word order (def > edf). Other variants in the various texts could be due to a number of factors, but most would be related to simple human error. It is important for the textual editor to realize that manuscript six preserves the archetypal passage more or less intact, other than the second and final words having been lost in some stage of transmission.
The reconstructions from Pulleyblank's lexicon for the above two graphs are: and maj. These reconstructions also show an off-glide. This simple example strongly suggests that Miller's criticism about circularity is valid, and steps must be taken to avoid it, but his vituperation of Lange's methodology has not disproved the essential results. On a different score, Miller is also on the mark about the difficulty of reconstructing the pronunciation of Old Japanese, but as the example above has shown, it is not "hopeless to attempt to recover the OJ pronunciation of any historical period" (1975:196).
8. OJ Vowels and Sino-Xenic Data distinction in OJ (cf. Miyake 1995, 1996, 1999). SV is important for our discussion, because Vietnamese historically had a rich vocalism, and preserved various otherwise lost distinctions of Old Chinese. According to a study conducted by Han (1966:7, 9), Vietnamese has eleven simple vowel phonemes, and the Hanoi dialect has six tones, while the Saigon dialect has five tones. Reconstructions of Proto-Viet-Muong also have eleven simple vocalic phonemes (Thompson 1976:1150).
A Descriptive Grammar of Early Old Japanese Prose (Brill's Japanese Studies Library) by John R. Bentley