By Trevor G. Fenell, Henriki Gelson
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Extra resources for A Grammar of Modern Latvian (Slavistic Printings and Reprintings ; No. 304) Vol.3
A nominal such as the smart woman therefore shows the intrinsically phonological organization indicated in (12)a. Semantically, however, the article does not pertain to the adjective, but to the entire nominal expression. For semantic and grammatical purposes, we want to say that it combines with the remainder of the nominal as the last step in assembling it, implying the constituency in (12)b. (the) (smart woman) [unipolar (purely phonological) constituency] [bipolar (grammatical) constituency] This apparent discrepancy is unproblematic given the distinction between grammatical hierarchy – pertaining to the external arrangement of symbolic structures as bipolar entities – and the phonological hierarchy internal to each symbolic structure at its phonological pole, viewed as a purely phonological (unipolar) entity.
To mentally access one conceived entity through another. The entity accessed in this way is called the target (T) in the reference point relationship. The set of entities accessible through a given reference point (the set of potential targets) are collectively referred to as its dominion (D). 4(a). Dashed arrows indicate the path of mental access. 4(b) shows profile/active-zone discrepancy as a particular application of our reference point ability. Functioning as reference point is the profile of a subject or object nominal, which the construction puts in focus as trajector or landmark of a profiled relationship.
When it is properly distinguished from purely conceptual and purely phonological organization, and when the pivotal role of correspondences is recognized, grammatical constituency can be seen as non-essential and often variable. It is not fundamental, but emerges as a special case from other, more basic phenomena (Langacker 1995a, 1997a). 7. Conclusion The question is often posed whether grammar is predictable from semantics and other independent factors. From a negative answer to that question, it is generally concluded that grammar constitutes an autonomous formal system.
A Grammar of Modern Latvian (Slavistic Printings and Reprintings ; No. 304) Vol.3 by Trevor G. Fenell, Henriki Gelson