A Grammar of Tadaksahak: A Berberised Songhay Language - download pdf or read online

By Regula Christiansen-Bolli

ISBN-10: 3896459317

ISBN-13: 9783896459312

The current research presents an in depth description of Tadaksahak, a Northern Songhay department of the Nilo-Saharan language crew. it's spoken through nearly 30,000 humans, consisting often of the ethnic staff of the Idaksahak who're dwelling within the East of Mali in addition to in remoted locations in western Niger. The booklet is split into 4 chapters giving a whole assessment: the 1st brief bankruptcy presents information regarding the history of the Idaksahak. within the moment bankruptcy, the phonological positive factors of the language are defined, whereas the 3rd bankruptcy is devoted to the outline of the morphology of Tadaksahak. it really is proven that verbal derivation pulls on unrelated Tamasheq for causative, reciprocal and center in addition to passive. furthermore, any verb root that's of Songhay starting place is suppleted whilst derived and a semantic an identical of Tamasheq beginning takes its position. one other non-Songhay function matters inflection the place the topic pronoun cliticizes to the verb and is usually current even if a noun word holds the topic slot. The nominalization procedure used will depend on the etymology of the time period, a characteristic paralleled within the formation of adjectives. The final bankruptcy is devoted to the syntax of the language and offers varieties of noun words. additionally, the different sorts of easy clauses are handled in addition to focalization and topicalization in such clauses. query phrases and supplement clauses together with the 2 attainable relativization suggestions also are thought of, whereas the final part approximately complicated sentences offers subordinate clauses. within the appendices texts with glosses, lists of verb roots with their suppletions whilst derived, a wordlist Tadaksahak-English containing Songhay cognates and an index English-Tadaksahak are given.

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29) Examples of sibilant harmony azágaz ázanzo áaẓǝẓ aẓámmaẓṛa afásas alxasáyis faṣúṣ aṣáaṇǝṣ áʃʃaʃ kǝrʃiʃin aʒáaʒib ʒíʒil gloss wild cat (Felix silvestris) milk (kind of) vulture, sp. bee-eater, sp. stick of Calotropis procera amulet (kind of) to be light (not heavy) rope (kind of) turban (kind of) to be coarse phantom to draw (water from well) Phonological Structure 29 Sibilant harmony also applies to loanwords from French originally containing different sibilants. g. ʃakóʃ ‘army bag’ (< sacoche), sosét ‘socks’ (< chaussettes).

CVC words ahún hold it! agúd moment cijín last night bǝkáw jinn ágli ruminated grass áwsa gall íini óoda color this ána ígi for you deed (2 items) tábsit zálgat rúmsut wánjin áhwar acacia flowers left hand side to desire meat to refuse decoration (kind of) aardvark ádbug áanut áadal stick to make fire wild cat, sp. g. (84) Initial stress unidentified item hánaka túhuya camel’s hump Phonological Structure hǝḍǝḍi ágala áanibo éesawa áɣaata áɣaatir áadanan ágaŋgo táfadla tánaflit álaŋkam kǝrwǝli bǝrʒǝkum 47 to be swollen south child born out of wedlock attention, readiness monitor lizard dried clay ground guts croup wart wellness place behind (on animal) to cling to to be wrapped up Words with three syllables and a long initial vowel are rare.

26 (23) Possible combinations of V1 and V2 in words V2 V1 i e a ǝ o u i ciidí hillén didá íilǝs ʃíʃu salt horns walk tongue ibóoraɣa n make drink fruits, sp. e a feejí ténada aɣéeɣǝr éesu sheep fever dried meat bull qaará n ahǝgǝg agóogis abútu pilgrimage braid (kind navel baarí danjé horse silence study ǝ mǝṭṭi bǝllen change wrestle of) kǝrtǝb a dǝbǝt sǝfoɣfoɣ agǝrǝfu be able to click kneeling trousers o u booʃí borén goorá zórbǝba góoro óoruf ashes people sit fruit, sp. cola nut acacia, sp. wulíiwu li áagud er túurag at wulǝtwulǝt fúrno gussú bend in the brazier/grill hole carry sth.

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A Grammar of Tadaksahak: A Berberised Songhay Language (Mali) by Regula Christiansen-Bolli

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