By Riikka Halme
Kwanyama ('Oshikwanyama' in line with the authentic Namibian regular) is a Wambo language, and correspondingly belongs to the Bantu languages. it truly is spoken through way over part 1000000 humans in South Angola and Namibia.
Certainly this quantity comprises the audio system of different closely-related Wambo types in Angola. those languages were studied quite little, and the research in their tonal structures has been quite ignored. the current publication is the 1st cartoon of Kwanyama grammar with a scientific account on tone. the most target is to supply an research of the tonal process of this language. hence the research discusses either the lexical tone, i.e. tone as an inherent estate of a lexeme, and the grammatical tone wich marks grammatical houses. the writer lived in a Kwanyama-speaking neighborhood in Angola for roughly part a 12 months and had the chance there to enhance her linguistic competence. As a researcher she retains to the culture of Generative Phonology within the experience that there are ideas that take the tone styles from the underlying illustration to a binary floor illustration, i.e. tonemes. with a purpose to aid the reader to stick to the argumentation of the tonal research, this ebook is organised in any such means that the segmental and tonal degrees are mentioned individually, via discussions on tone in nouns, verbs and minor note different types. After that, the learn is said to the broader context of analysis on Guthrie's crew R languages, specifically the Wambo languages. eventually, the reader unearths nominal and verbal paradigms in addition to a few texts, and a vocabulary Kwanyama-Englisch containing approximately 6,000 entries.
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Extra info for A Tonal Grammar of Kwanyama (Namibian African studies)
Should be hosted by the left periphery of the embedded sentence and hence should follow the complementizer. Indeed the presence of such material under the complementizer is familiar from English as well as from Romance languages. In (11) we provide some examples from Italian, where (11a) illustrates a topic and (11b) a focus in the left periphery of the embedded sentence. â•… b. haveâ•… taken (not that) ‘I know that they have taken this one, not that one’ As expected, wh–phrases can also appear under the complementizer.
Thus, in a sentence like (1) the verb heading the matrix sentence takes as its complement a noun phrase headed by the che complementizer, which in turn takes the embedded sentence as its complement, yielding a structure of the type in (10). 3 (10) I che C I fai V questo 18â•… Romance complementizers:Â€structure & interpretation It should also be noted that the theoretical literature does contain treatments in which sentential introducers are removed from the C projection(s) of the embedded sentence and are made to depend directly on the main sentential tree.
This suggests that the adjunct cannot be extracted from the factive sentenceÂ€ – though this extraction is possible from the non-factive one. In other words, factives show an asymmetry between arguments, as in (32b) and adjuncts, as in (33b) of the type well known from Cinque (1990), and accounted for since Rizzi (1990) as a Minimality effect. â•… b. Perchèâ•… pensi che siano venuti? ’ Perchè ti dispiace che siano venuti? ’ Now, we know that in some languages the factive vs. non-factive distinction involves the choice of different complementizers, one such language being Greek, as studied by Roussou (1994).
A Tonal Grammar of Kwanyama (Namibian African studies) by Riikka Halme